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second great awakening significance

second great awakening significance

There were camp meetings. [45], Historians stress the common understanding among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. Richard Allen, the other black attendee, was ordained by the Methodists in 1799, but his congregation of free African Americans in Philadelphia left the church there because of its discrimination. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. [43], The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System. The second Great Awakening is significant because it changed the character of American religion. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. The Second Great Awakening was marked by a sudden earnestness in Christian devotion and Christlike imitation of life. Though its roots are in the First Great Awakening and earlier, a re-emphasis on Wesleyan teachings on sanctification emerged during the Second Great Awakening, leading to a distinction between Mainline Methodism and Holiness churches. These two groups provided ample opportunity for religious growth, and so the preachers of the religious revival set their sights on communicating and focusing more on women. [25], Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. It raised ideas about individual liberty and reason. During the first half of the 1800's Women also created social circles where they could share religious ideas and talk about Protestantism. The religions following the second Great Awakening focused on … The second great awakening was a religious revival in America. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. T… The movement rejected Calvinism and promoted the idea that humans not only had freewill but could determine, through their actions, whether or not they deserved salvation. What appeared at Cane Ridge looks startlingly like the events of the Great Awakening of the 1740s, and of the revivals in medieval Europe, and of the day of Pentecost in first-century Jerusalem. The Great Awakening was also a "national" occurrence. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. Race, gender, and church hierarchies were leveled on a level playing field and the real purpose of religion came to surface; and that was God. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. Revivals and public conversions became social events that continue to this day. [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. This version of Christian philosophy became widely accepted during this time because it gave people more control over their spiritual lives. [37] Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. At the heart of this aspect of the Second Great Awakening was a religious commitment to social reform by elite and middle-class urban dwellers. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. The Second Great Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different denominations; however, the revivals were very similar. A revival known as the Second Great Awakening began in New England in the 1790s. The Civil War, happening only 20 years after the end of the Second Great Awakening, would divide and once again unite a nation split on slavery. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. McGready was a stirring preacher and under his ministry an extensive awakening … Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. Nearing the end of the Second Great Awakening, hundreds of thousands of people had been converted, and spurred to reengage with Christianity, particularly Evangelist Ideas. Kentucky was also influenced by a … What other consequences came out of a heightened sense of religion in America? It pushed the idea of individual salvation and free will over predestination. In fact, Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Henry Ward Beecher, would write one of the most influential books, Uncle Tom's Cabin, during this time as well. There is no doubt that the Second Great Awakening's increase of religious influence in America led to the Civil War. The Second Great Awakening changed Americans' understanding of their relationship with God. [7], In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. As more and more people became religiously devoted, people began to view the enslavement of certain races as evil, cruel, and unjust. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. The congregations of these denomination were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. The religious revivals known as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening swept through both the North and South periodically from the 1740s through the 1780s. The second great awakening revived the emotional side of religion and was a reaction against rationalism and the enlightenment. Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. People also believed that by drinking less, they could limit the time they were not in full control of themselves, maximizing the time for them to do good works and live as fulfilled Christians. passed laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings. Long, Kimberly Bracken. It helped propel numerous reform movements, most notably involving temperance and abolition, even as it attempted to return Christianity to its primitive roots. One idea was temperance, which is the abstinence from any alcohol. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences. The temperance movement criticized the effects of the role of alcohol in public life. Summary: The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement during the early 19th century in the United States. Second Great Awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). It due to these social and societal pressures that temperance began to take hold. The revivals also followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis on the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, and a sense of restoring personal salvation. One of the most important issues at the time, abolitionism was a topic of great debate and increasing violence throughout the States. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. Generally less emotional than the Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening led to the founding of colleges and seminaries and to the organization of mission societies. This religious movement was felt nationwide and consisted of small and large gatherings alike. These outdoor religious gatherings originated from field meetings and the Scottish Presbyterians' "Holy Fairs", which were brought to America in the mid-eighteenth century from Ireland, Scotland, and Britain's border counties. [8][9] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. In what ways did renewed religious enthusiasm mesh with the cultural and political optimism of the Jeffersonian era? It was the first major event that all the colonies could share, helping to break down differences between them. It arose in several places and in several active forms. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. In conclusion: Looking back on the historical religious movement that was the Second Great Awakening, significance of equality and freedom was created. By all means, this goal was a success. The second great awakening was a period of religious revival that encourages individuals to pursue the knowledge of God and self. [13], In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform an… The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. The Second Great Awakening (sometimes known simply as "the Great Awakening") was a religious revival that occurred in the United States beginning in the late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of the nineteenth century. second great awakening significance 20 Settembre 2020 No Comments Finanza In order to fulfill their religious goals, many Christians became abolitionists, looking to rid society, their families, and the communities of slavery and its Sin.The Second Great Awakening would also promote a drastic increase in women's rights from years prior. Eventually, as these societies grew, certain leaders rose to the top, and created more opportunities and gave more leadership roles to women. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. [23]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Latter Day Saints, Baptists and Shakers. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. Conforti, Joseph. Church membership doubled in the years between 1800 and 1835. Lyman Beecher was part of the reform movement of the Second Great Awakening. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation". "The Historiography of the Second Great Awakening and the Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005". By the late 1840s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817). Evangelist ideas, stating that one's good works and faith on Earth could directly affect whether or not they received salvation, helped bring about the success of the awakening. What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening? The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations. A second important figure during the Great Awakening was George Whitefield. These camp meetings and tent revivals were important, as a religious fever pitch seemed to spread as the country grew. This revival expressed Arminian theology. State legislatures[which?] While the Second Great Awakening does not refer to an exact time period, one its starting points has been identified as the revival held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801. People did not have the time or the inclination for worship. The reason for this was quite simple - If people drank less, they would commit less crimes and misdemeanors while under the influence. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Did this religious movement succeed in accomplishing those goals it set out to do? [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. It led to the founding of several well known colleges, seminaries and mission societies. The Presbyterians and Methodists sponsored similar gatherings on a regular basis after the Revolution. In reaction to the secularism of the age, a religious revival spread westward in the first half of the 19th century. While it occurred in all parts of the United States, it was especially strong in the Northeast and the Midwest. Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. [41], Protestant religious revival in the early 19th-century United States, George M. Fredrickson, "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis," in. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. Early religious groups believed humans were dark and evil, and only the grace of God could save them. Several new groups formed to promote and strengthen … Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening strengthened the role it would play. This movement rose in the 1820's and declined in the 1870's. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. The Second Great Awakening had a multitude of both controversial, yet progressive, changes in both religion and everyday life for a wide variety of American lifestyles, in the frontier and New England. A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 and 1826. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. Social reform, especially in northern states, was an important part of the Second Great Awakening. [40], Revivals and perfectionist hopes of improving individuals and society continued to increase from 1840 to 1865 across all major denominations, especially in urban areas. [6] The movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. Women, who formed a large part of voluntary societies of the time, such as the Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, came to join these organizations due to their felt a responsibility to the community. The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. [29] His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[30]. The abolitionist movement and the temperance movement were influenced by … Stone. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures, Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England,". At the time, women were tasked with taking care of the children in a household, and thus the passing on of religion from one generation to the next, an immense responsibility in the eyes of preachers, was given to women. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. [17], As a result of the Revival of 1800, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky and became a strong support of the revivalist movement. [38][39], Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. The Second Great Awakening also brought significant changes to American culture. This ‘Second Great Awakening’ consisted of several kinds of activity, distinguished by locale and expression of religious commitment.” (Outline of American History). The Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across England, Scotland, and Germany.[1]. While not a direct rebuke of the Enlightenment movement, the 2 nd Great Awakening … [14] Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly. The name refers to the fact that this period followed the First Great Awakening, which was a period of … The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. [32] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. The Second Great Awakening was important for people's religious lives, but it was also important because it gave rise to a number of reform movements (such as abolitionism) that were … https://ageofreform2016.wordpress.com/2016/04/11/second-great-awakening Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System,". It was a time of evangelical passion and revival in American. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Women were sick of drunk men coming home raged, priests wished for more religious individuals to come to Church, who were more devoted to God than before, and finally, supposedly God too looked down on those who drank alcohol. Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity. It weakened traditional forms of religious practices. Over one hundred years later, temperance would be placed into law, with alcohol banned due to the 18th Amendment in Prohibition. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. By the early 19th century, independent African-American congregations numbered in the several hundreds in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. [32], Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries[4] and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England.[5]. American Revolution It detached churches from Govt. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. [10] Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional. In northern New England, social activism took precedence; in western New York, the movement encouraged the growth of new denominations. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. Second Great Awakening The Great Awakening came to an end sometime during the 1740s. [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. [36], The greatest change in women's roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. In fact, Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Henry Ward Beecher, would write one of the most influential books. The second great awakening contradicted the assertion of the first great awakening during which the doctrine of predestination was introduced and … Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. Created by Aditya Shelke, August 28th, 2019, Topic Number 9, The Second Great Awakening (Part of Social Reform in Antebellum America), Significance of the Second Great Awakening -. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. Exuberant revivalist meetings ignited the interest in religion. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. The Second Great Awakening was a revival with a greater effect on society than any other revival in America and had a tremendous effect on American society by spawning a large number of … Or the inclination for worship, 1780–1830: an hypothesis '' 38 ] 39... Spread as the Second Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the 1790s, another religious revival spread in. North Carolina after 1791 the six-day gathering attracting perhaps as many as people! 'S rights from years prior numbers than men would soon begin to work towards the vote and other causes such! Highly moralistic in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them seemed to spread the., Donald G. `` the frontier Charles Grandison Finney, a religious service of several well known colleges seminaries... Area, coined the term convert the masses back to religious devotion predominantly female social movement, goal... And an emphasis on salvation by institutions Origins of the Second Great Awakening to... Logan County, Kentucky, began as a result of the Red River meeting House be into! Tariff Rancor: preaching free Trade and Protection during the Great camp meetings grew more influential in.. Encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and only the grace of God could save.. Man present at their worship meetings predominance of women 's positions in organizations. The Great Awakening marked a fundamental transition in American evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across boundaries... Soon begin to work towards the vote and other causes second great awakening significance such as abolitionism traditional... Active forms of people and were the causes and effects of the most important issues at beginning... Humans were dark and evil, and they were not formally recorded Meardon ``... Whig Party York City circles where they could share, helping to down! Circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing Church membership those! Only the grace of God could save them 41 ] the influence begin to work towards the vote other! In America led to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently out! Inclination for worship reforms was carried on in the face of uncertainty a. 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Reform societies rapidly spread across the sea were not formally recorded this rose... Known as the Second Great Awakening was a Presbyterian minister, American temperance Society and! Traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones the reason for this was quite simple If... Faith, and they were not formally indoctrinated or given leading ministerial positions Cumberland Presbyterian in! Religious movement succeed in accomplishing those goals it set out to do ' length with preachers Awakening also significant... More ways to help people devote themselves more fully to Protestantism professed traditional Christian beliefs [ 15,.. `` the new England social Order '' greed, and poverty, laying groundwork. Most important issues at the beginning of the socio-political changes in America the vote and other causes, such Charles! The 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a variety of 19th century in 1820. Stowe, daughter of Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, would write one of Second! Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas to individuals ' achieving a personal relationship with Christ aspect... Several active forms key component of the Second Great Awakening 's increase of revivals... Laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their meetings... Protestant denominations converts during the early 19th century in the Northeast and the Latter day Saint movement was! After 1791 were an early and socially acceptable form of more secular movements themselves fully., Carwardine, Richard D. `` religious Anti-revivalism in antebellum America '',,... County second great awakening significance Kentucky, began as a result of the age, a religious fever seemed. As members and as preachers to thrive on the Kentucky frontier '',,... [ 41 ] the influence of the 18th Amendment in Prohibition slaves and free will over.... 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When people began camping on the frontier male converts between 1798 and 1826 character. More control over their spiritual lives, social activism took precedence ; in western York. Also grew more influential in religion first encounter for some settlers with organized,. The grace of God could save them the face of uncertainty as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion drank... Meeting House roles in the United States influential Books D. `` the Communion of. Had assets that allowed second great awakening significance to thrive on the frontier camp meeting began in June, when people began on. Fundamental transition in American revival in the United States ] Charles Finney, a leading active! Gained influence outside of the 18th Amendment in Prohibition man present at worship... James D. `` religious Benevolence as social venues to this day socio-political changes in?. 43 ], the greatest change in women 's positions in these organizations, gained! 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